As computer technology has become more accessible and music software had advanced, interacting with music production technology became possible using means that bear no relationship to traditional musical performance practices: for instance, laptop performance (laptronica) and live coding.
In the last decade a number of software-based virtual studio environments have emerged, with products such as Propellerhead's Reason and Ableton Live finding popular appeal. Such tools provide viable and cost-effective alternatives to typical hardware-based production studios, and thanks to advances in microprocessor technology, it became possible to create high quality music using little more than a single laptop computer. Such advances have led to a massive increase in the amount of home-produced electronic music available to the general public via the internet. Bands such as The Prodigy, Pendulum, Ratatat, and Nine Inch Nails are a few of the most popular electronic rock bands.
The industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails' album "Year Zero" utilized a heavily edited and distorted guitar sound modified via laptop computer. Allmusic's review described the album's laptop-mixed sound: "guitars squall against glitches, beeps, pops, and blotches of blurry sonic attacks. Percussion looms large, distorted, organic, looped, screwed, spindled and broken."The French electronic duo Justice's album † incorporates a strong rock and metal influence into their music and image. Canadian band Crystal Castles incorporates elements of chiptune and punk rock vocals. Icelandic singer Bjork's song "Declare Independence" from her album Volta featured a heavily modified synth bass guitar sound and strong rock feel. Canadian artist Peaches and various aspects of the Electroclash genre often reflect a strong Rock sensibility. New York's Ratatat is often cited as achieving an "electronic rock" sound.
Many groups in the post-punk era adopted a more rhythmic tempo, conducive to dancing. These bands were influenced by disco, funk, and other dance musics popular at the time, as well as being anticipated by some of the 1970s work of David Bowie, Brian Eno, and Iggy Pop, and some recordings by the German groups referred to as Krautrock.
The music style re-emerged under the name dance-punk at the beginning of the 21st century. The style was championed by rock- and punk-oriented bands such as Liars, The Rapture and Radio 4, as well as dance-oriented acts such as Out Hud. Other groups, such as !!! and The Faint fell somewhere in the middle. There has since been a crystallization of musical forms within dance-punk, with bands such as Death from Above 1979, Test Icicles, Fake Shark - Real Zombie!, and Q and Not U exploring aspects of dance-punk, along with post-hardcore and other musical styles. DFA Records can be seen as the current center of the dance-punk genre. As well as James Murphy's LCD Soundsystem, the label is currently home to The Juan MacLean, Hot Chip, Hercules & Love Affair, Brinvonda, Shit Robot, Delia Gonzalez & Gavin Russom, Prinzhorn Dance School, Booji Boy High, Shocking Pinks, Holy Ghost!, Still Going, Syclops and YACHT.